Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 5 July 2020

There will be a penumbral lunar eclipse on 5 July 2020. It will be visible from some parts of North America during moonrise, South and North America, the extreme part of Namaqua Land in South Africa and Western Africa (completely visible), and in southwestern Europe New Zealand, some parts of the Pacific Ocean, Central-, East Africa (except Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea and a strip of North Eastern Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia) and some parts of North Africa and some parts of the Indian Ocean during moonset.

The Moon will start to enter Earth’s shadow at 03:07 UT and the maximum partial eclipse will occur at 04:30 UT. The entire eclipse will last for around two hours forty-five minutes, ending at 05:52 UT. The map below shows the visibility of the eclipse:

Visibility_Lunar_Eclipse_2020-07-05

The chart below, cast for London, shows the event:

Full Moon eclipse July 2020

Before we will discuss any possible effects on the individual, we have a look at the mundane astrological implications of this eclipse. To be able to do this, we need to establish where the eclipse is likely to have its greatest effect. For this purpose we need to look at the countries or cities falling under the rulership of Capricorn, the sign wherein the eclipse Moon resides during the event. We also have to take into consideration that the eclipse’s visibility will greatly enhance its effect.

The map above shows the paths of angularity for Sun (red) and Moon (black):

Screenshot 2020-06-28 at 10.21.15

Looking through traditional source material, we find that Albania, Austria (particularly Styria), Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (particularly Gaunt at Somme), Germany (particularly Brandenburg, Constance, Juliers, Saxony, and Thuringia), Greece, Iran (Ariana), Italy (particularly Toronta and Derthona), Lithuania, Macedonia, UK (particularly Orkney Islands and Oxford), are the locations traditionally thought to fall under the rulership of Capricorn.

From the above, it is noticeable that North America, South America, Africa and Spain are on the path of this lunar eclipse. This makes it possible that some eclipse related events may occur. Also, with the eclipsed Moon located close to the Ascendant in North America, it is likely that any eclipse related event will occur very soon after the actual date of the eclipse.

The Moon is placed in the second decanate of Capricorn, which is ruled by Mars. According to William Lilly’s Annus Tenebrosus, an eclipsed Moon in the second decanate of Capricorn indicates:

“uprores very frequent on the Souldiery, often incursions into neighbour-Countries, Captivities, Plunderings.”

Capricorn is ruled by Saturn, the Greater Malefic, which shows that things are likely to get problematic. Again we can look to William Lilly, who wrote about Saturn being eclipse ruler:

“He is generally the cause of corruptions by reason of cold, more properly he declares continued diseases in the bodyes of men, as wasting of the body, or a consumption which hath its originall from some reflux of Reume, her denotes Disturbance of radicall Humours, Fluxes, Quartane Agues, Banishments, Poverty, Miserie, Lamentation, vain fears, mortality of old men especially […]”

There are also some important conjunctions between the Lunar North Node and fixed stars Betelgeuse and Polaris, and the Lunar South Node and fixed stars Acumen and Eltanin, which will add to the scope of this eclipse:

The North Lunar Node is conjunct Betelgeuse, which is of the nature of Mars and Mercury, can be associated with injuries through fire or explosive substances.

The North Lunar Node is also conjunct Polaris, which has a reputation for loss and trouble or sickness.

The Lunar South Node is conjunct Acumen, in Scorpius, associated with danger to the eyes, especially in association with the Sun and Moon.

Finally, a conjunction between the Lunar South Node and Eltanin, in Draco, which can be a proneness to fluctuating and volatile conditions in life.

On a personal level, an eclipse usually affects only a small number of people. To establish the possibility of any effect to take place, the birth chart should be scrutinized for any of the following:

  • Moon is in or around 13* Capricorn
  • Moon is in or around 13* Cancer (opposition)
  • 13* Capricorn is culminating in the birth chart (conjunct Midheaven)
  • 13* Capricorn is ascending in the birth chart (conjunct Ascendant)

Should it be the case that one or even more of these factors apply, an in-depth reading of the birth chart may be necessary to find out if, how and to what extent the native could be affected.

 

Annular Solar Eclipse 21 June 2020

On 21 June, at 06:40UT, there will be an annular solar eclipse. The Sun and the Moon will be conjunct in 00*21′ Cancer.

The annular phase of this eclipse will be visible from parts of Africa including the Central African Republic, Congo, and Ethiopia; south of Pakistan and northern India. It will also be visible in China. Regions seeing, at least, a partial eclipse will be South/East Europe, Much of Asia, Northern parts of Australia, the Pacific, and the Indian Ocean.

SE2020Jun21A

The eclipse is a part of Saros cycle 137, repeating every 18 years, 11 days, containing 70 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on May 25, 1389. The 21 June 2020 solar eclipse was preceded by the solar eclipse of 10 June 2002 and will be followed by the solar eclipse of 2 July 2038.

The chart below, cast for London, shows the eclipse:solar eclipse 2020

Before we will discuss any possible effects on the individual, we have a look at the mundane astrological implications of this eclipse. To be able to do this, we need to establish where the eclipse is likely to have its greatest effect. For this purpose we need to look at the countries or cities falling under the rulership of Cancer, the sign wherein the eclipsed Sun resides during the event. We also have to take into consideration that the eclipse’s visibility will greatly enhance its effect.

Looking through traditional source material, we find that  Africa, Algiers, Amsterdam, Bithynia (Asia Minor), Burgundy, Cadiz, Carthage, Constantinople (Turkey), Genoa, Granada, Holland, Lubeck, Magdeburg (Germany), Milan (Italy), Pisa (Italy), Prussia, Scotland, Tunis, Venice, Wittenberg, York and Zealand are the locations traditionally thought to fall under the rulership of Cancer.

Below is a map, showing the eclipse’s lines of angularity (ASC and MC):

map eclipse 2020With the eclipse point close to the MC in India, China, Russia and Kazakhstan, we should take note that eclipse themed events could take place there in the next 6 months.

The chart below shows the eclipse cast for New Delhi. We note that eclipse chart Mars is on the DC, square the eclipse point on the Midheaven. This also means that the Lesser Malefic opposes the Ascendant, in Virgo. (N.B. Mercury, Lord of the Ascendant is also in Cancer, located in the 10th house). In mundane astrology, the first house signifies the general condition poverty/prosperity or illness/health of the country in question. There is also the link to the 10th house via retrograde Mercury – again, in mundane astrology the 10th house signifies national reputation, employment rate, etc.

ecliopse chart new delhi 2020

To get into more detail, the eclipse point is in the first Decanate of Cancer, which is ruled by Venus, therefore we have to look at her and the Moon as eclipse ruler. In mundane astrology, the Moon signifies the common people, but as well the matter these people are focusing on. Venus in mundane charts signifies social factors connected to marriage and children but also issues of peace and diplomatic resolutions.

Broadly speaking, eclipses in Cancer signify, according to William Lilly:

“… a rottenness or corruption in the fruit when its gathered, occasioning surfets, and sicknesses unto such as eat them, Sea fights, long and dangerous Navigations.”.

William Lilly also writes in his Annus Tenebrous, that a solar eclipse in the first Decanate of Cancer:

“… disturbs the ayr, and stirs up strange weather, and variety of it, inclines men to Arms, and to violate National Leagues, deceitfully under the species of Religion.”

We also have to add to the picture that Sun and Moon are conjunct fixed star Menkalinan, causing ruin, disgrace, and frequently violent death. [Robson, p175f]. Venus, who is co-ruler of the eclipse is conjunct Prima Hyadum, in Gemini, the leading star of the Hyades cluster in the constellation of Taurus, that brings sudden events, reversals, tears and sometimes violence. 

All in all it seems that this eclipse will add to the already volatile situation occurring world wide. People who are obvioiusly (and rightly) expecting strong leadership may feel disappointed, left confused and without clear guidance. This may also spill over into themes of a religious nature, whereby certain religious stock phrases or views may be used to peddle doubtful ideologies. The world economy will most likely see a continued downturn, with all its resulting negative effects for communities as well s individuals.

The angularity chart shows that the effects of this eclipse will be affecting us during at least the next six months, whereby Asia will be highlighted. All of this may be a prelude to the upcoming Great Conjunction (Saturn/Jupiter conjunction December 2020), which will take place in Aquarius. This conjunction highlights the mundane astrological shift of emphasis from Earth (Taurus) towards Air (Aquarius) which points towards Asia beginning to play a much more of a dominant role.

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It is useful to know that the last time a solar eclipse occurred in Cancer was in June 2001. It may be of merit to expect and prepare for a repeat of some of the personal experiences that occurred back in 2001. Although an eclipse usually affects only a small number of people, it may be beneficial to try to remember if any problems occurred during this year. If so, but also to generally establish the possibility of any effect that could take place, the birth chart should be scrutinised for any of the following:

  • Sun or Moon are in or around 00* Cancer
  • Sun or Moon are in or around 00* Capricorn (opposition)
  • 00* Cancer is culminating in the birth chart (conjunct Midheaven)
  • 00* Cancer is ascending in the birth chart (conjunct Ascendant)

Should it be the case that one or even more of these factors apply, an in-depth reading of the birth chart may be necessary to find out if, how and to what extent the native could be affected.

 

NEW Expanded & Updated Annual Prediction Reading – available now!

Due to the recent publication of new traditional astrological source material, my most popular reading, the Annual Prediction, has been expanded and updated. The reading now draws on (new additions in red):

  • Fardars

According to this technique, each of the seven planets has a certain number of determinate years allocated; every planet disposes the native according to the appropriate fardar.

  • Profections, including Lord of the Year and Lord of the Orb

The Lord of the Orb is the lord of the planetary hour, delivering accurate information valid throughout the projected year.

  • Solar Revolution (expanded)

This is the core of the Annual Prediction reading. The chart for the solar revolution (i.e. the native’s birthday) of the upcoming solar year in question is cast and compared to the nativity.

  • Distributions and Primary Directions

These powerful techniques can help to focus on important triggers and also narrow down the likely timing of events.

  • Transits

Here we take an in-depth look at the transits of Saturn and Jupiter, which also helps to narrow down windows of occurrence.

 

For detailed information regarding each technique and more, click the link below and select Annual Prediction from the list:

 

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Appulse Lunar Eclipse 5 June 2020

There will be a partial lunar eclipse on 5 June 2020. Regions seeing, at least, some parts of the eclipse will be most of Europe, most of Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and Antarctica.

The Moon will start to enter Earth’s shadow at 17:45UT and the maximum partial eclipse will occur at 19:25UT. The entire eclipse will last for about 3 hours 18 minutes, ending at 21:03UT. The map below shows the visibility of the eclipse:

The chart below, cast for London, shows the event:

Before we are going to discuss any possible effects on the individual, we should have a look at the mundane astrological implications of this eclipse. To be able to do this, we need to establish where the eclipse is likely to have its greatest effect. For this purpose we need to look at the countries or cities falling under the rulership of Sagittarius, the sign wherein the eclipse Moon resides during the event. We also have to take into consideration that the eclipse’s visibility will greatly enhance its effect.

Looking through traditional astrological source material, we find that Greece (and there particularly Attica), Arabia, France (particularly Avignon), Hungary (particularly Budapest), Germany (particularly Cologne, Meissen, Judenburg, Rottenburg, Stuttgart), Italy (particularly Colonia, Volterra), Yugoslavia (particularly Dalmatia, Modena), Croatia, Gascovia in the Basque region, Czechoslovakia (particularly Moravia), Sclavonia (around Bulgaria), and Spain (particularly Toledo) may be affected.

The map above shows the paths of angularity for Sun (red) and Moon (black)

From the above, it is noticeable that Spain, France and Germany are not only falling under the rulership of Sagittarius, but that they are also on the path of this lunar eclipse. This makes it more likely that some eclipse related events may occur. Also, with the eclipsed Moon located close to the Ascendant, it is likely that any eclipse related event will occur very soon after the actual date of the eclipse.

According to Ptolemy, this eclipse, being in a four-footed, common, fire sign, close to the Ascendant, suggests an effect on four-footed dumb animals, humans, kings, but also crops, youth, and foundations. The Moon is placed in Sagittarius’ first decanate, which is also ruled by the Moon. According to William Lilly’s Annus Tenebrosus, an eclipsed Moon in the first decanate of Sagittarius indicates:

“Dieseases rage against and amongst Horses, Mules &c. The Seas troubled with Pyrats”

With Jupiter being eclipse ruler, we can also look to William Lilly, who wrote about Jupiter being eclipse ruler:

“When Jupiter alone has the chiefest Dominion in an Eclips, generally he products an increase of all things. […]

This is well and good but the problem, as far as I can see it, is that Jupiter is in his fall in Capricorn. This greatly debilitates him and also puts him under the rulership of Saturn, the Greater Malefic. Also, we notice that Jupiter is conjunct fixed star Terebellum. Robson writes in his Fixed Stars and Constellations about Terebellum that:

“It gives a fortune but with regret and disgrace, cunning, a mercenary nature and repulsiveness.”

There is also a tight square between both eclipse points and Mars, the Lesser Malefic. Furthermore Mars is in mixed reception with Jupiter, being his exaltation ruler in Pisces, in the 3rd house. Together with what has been said above, this could be interpreted in the way that matters are generally improving but also that care has to be taken not to get too overexcited.

In mundane astrology, the Moon signifies the common people, whereas the Sun, due to the eclipse being in opposition to the Moon, represents the Prime Minister and all people in authority. Mars, who signifies strikes, conflicts and opposition forces, is squaring both the eclipsed Moon and the Sun, which makes the resulting scenario self-explanatory.

On a personal level, an eclipse usually affects only a small number of people. To establish the possibility of any effect to take place, the birth chart should be scrutinized for any of the following:

  • Moon is in or around 15 Sagittarius
  • Moon is in or around 15 Gemini (opposition)
  • 15 Gemini is culminating in the birth chart (conjunct Midheaven)
  • 15 Gemini is ascending in the birth chart (conjunct Ascendant)

Should it be the case that one or even more of these factors apply, an in-depth reading of the birth chart may be necessary to find out if, how and to what extent the native could be affected.

Cazimi Planets in 2020/21

With Saturn being Cazimi on 14 January, I decided to do a little research to find out about the number of upcoming conjunctions over the next couple of years.

To remind ourselves: Cazimi or “in the heart of the Sun”, is the position of a planet in tight conjunction with the Sun within 16 minutes of arc. This planetary position is said to be one of great strength, as the planet is fortified by the Sun’s rays.

William Lilly wrote about a cazimi planet that it would be “wonderous strong” (CA, p300).

Below is a table, listing all conjunction between the Sun and other planets, except Moon for the years 2020 and 2021

Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 11.Jan.2020 19 CP 49 19 CP 49
Transiting Sun Conjunct Saturn 14.Jan.2020 22 CP 53 22 CP 53
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 26.Feb.2020   6 PI 55   6 PI 55
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury   5.May.2020 14 TA 52 14 TA 52
Transiting Sun Conjunct Venus   4.Jun.2020 13 GE 35 13 GE 35
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury   1.Jul.2020   9 CN 44   9 CN 44
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 18.Aug.2020 25 LE 09 25 LE 09
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 26.Oct.2020   2 SC 47   2 SC 47
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 20.Dec.2020 28 SG 42 28 SG 42
Transiting Sun Conjunct Saturn 24.Jan.2021   4 AQ 20   4 AQ 20
Transiting Sun Conjunct Jupiter 29.Jan.2021   9 AQ 21   9 AQ 21
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury   9.Feb.2021 20 AQ 01 20 AQ 01
Transiting Sun Conjunct Venus 26.Mar.2021   5 AR 50   5 AR 50
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 19.Apr.2021 29 AR 14 29 AR 14
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 11.Jun.2021 20 GE 21 20 GE 21
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury   2.Aug.2021   9 LE 32   9 LE 32
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mars   8.Oct.2021 15 LI 05 15 LI 05
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 10.Oct.2021 16 LI 35 16 LI 35
Transiting Sun Conjunct Mercury 29.Nov.2021   7 SG 10   7 SG 10

 

 

 

Winter Solstice Wishes

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(Our Lady of the Night, Sr. Marie Pierre Semler)

With the Sun’s Capricorn ingress nearly upon us, I would like to take the opportunity to wish all my friends, followers, and gentle readers of this web log a peaceful Winter Solstice, a Merry Christmas, and a happy, healthy and prosperous New Year 2020.

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Winter Solstice 2019

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So the shortest day came, and the year died,
And everywhere down the centuries of the snow-white world
Came people singing, dancing,
To drive the dark away.
They lighted candles in the winter trees;
They hung their homes with evergreen;
They burned beseeching fires all night long
To keep the year alive,
And when the new year’s sunshine blazed awake
They shouted, reveling.
Through all the frosty ages you can hear them
Echoing behind us – Listen!!
All the long echoes sing the same delight,
This shortest day,
As promise wakens in the sleeping land:
They carol, fest, give thanks,
And dearly love their friends,
And hope for peace.
And so do we, here, now,
This year and every year.
Welcome Yule!      

(Susan Cooper)

christmas card

UK General Election 12 December 2019

On 12 December, the next United Kingdom general election is to be held under the provisions of the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019. It will be two and a half years after the previous general election in June 2017. The leader of the Conservatives is Boris Johnson, and at present, he is the UK’s Prime Minister. In the following, I will try to predict if Johnson and his party will be successful in the upcoming election and if he will be able to defend his position as Prime Minister.

Usually it is helpful to consult the party leaders’ natal charts, but we do not have reliable data to erect the chart of Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the opposition party. In cases like this, we have to rely on ingress and event charts.

Before we have a look at the event chart representing polling day, it may be helpful to remind ourselves of the current Solar Ingress chart for the UK, cast for 20th March 2019:

Screenshot 2019-11-05 at 09.04.27

In the chart above, the Moon is Lady of the Year. This indicates that the people of the UK will be heavily involved in the decision making concerning the current affairs of the United Kingdom. Luna is in Virgo, located in the 11th house, which, according to the rules of mundane astrology, represents the House of Commons. This suggests that the UK’s MPs, elected to represent the public, will express the will of the people. Anybody who followed the political news this year will be aware of the many confrontations between the House of Commons and the Government, which seems to prove the validity of the Ingress chart.

But let us now take look at the event chart, cast for the time the polling stations will open on 12 December, at 7:00am:

GE UK 12 December 19.png

With Sagittarius rising in the chart above, Jupiter is the significator of the Conservative party. Although essentially dignified by Face, Jupiter is under the sunbeams and essentially debilitated by Fall.

The Labour Party, who is in opposition, is signified by the ruler of Gemini, the sign on the 7th house cusp. This is, of course, Mercury, who is technically in the 12th house, but closely conjunct the first house cusp. Due to the 5 degree rule, we have to treat him as being located in the first house. He is also under the sunbeams and essentially debilitated by Detriment. This gives Mercury a slight disadvantage over Jupiter.

Considering that at the last elections, the Conservatives received 42% and the Labour Party 40% of the votes, I would suggest that we may see a similar picture, meaning that the Conservatives may find they will have a slight advantage over the Labour Party. I would also interpret the quite considerable level of essential debilities both party’s significators show, in the way that they will suffer significant losses of votes to either the Liberal Democrats, or the newly formed Brexit Party. (Saturn could possibly be seen as significator of the Brexit Party, and he is essentially strong, in Capricorn, his sign of rulership in the 2nd house).

Taking everything that has been discussed so far into consideration, it seems quite reasonable to assume that the Tories have a good chance of winning the elections, but will most likely be unable to get a clear working majority. If this would be the case, we would end up with another hung parliament, which means that we would be looking at another 5 years of a coalition government.

There are more astrological indicators in the chart above, which back up my proposal. The Moon, natural mundane significator of the people, is located in the 7th house, the house of the opposition. She is opposing the Sun, natural mundane astrological significator of the current prime minister, in the first house. This looks as if a high percentage of voters is not in agreement with the course of action suggested by the prime minister and Conservative Party leader, Boris Johnson. Naturally, we would find their significator in the house of the opposition party. What makes this interesting though is the fact that on 12 December, the Gemini Full Moon will be Void of Course. This means that there is the possibility that the will of the people will not be fulfilled.

Taking all this information into account, my prediction is that Boris Johnson will win the upcoming election, but that he may only be Prime Minister of a coalition government, which may frustrate the political will of many people in the United Kingdom.

Sun conjunct Mercury, 11th November 2019, an Astronomical Conjunction

On the 11th of November 2019, a transit of Mercury across the Sun will take place between 12:30 and 18:00UT. At this time, Mercury will be visible against the solar disc by obscuring a tiny part of it. After the 2019 event no further astronomical transit of Mercury will take place until December 2032.

Although this is true for the astronomical event, astrologically speaking, the symbolic conjunctions between Mercury and the Sun are by no means rare events.  Nevertheless it might be of interest to take the opportunity and have a look at this particular conjunction.

The exact astrological conjunction will take place on the 11th of November 2019 at 15:22. The chart below, cast for London, shows the event.

 

Sun conjunct Mercury.png

The conjunction is placed in 18*55 Scorpio; Sun and Mercury are in a separating sextile to Saturn. With the greater malefic involved, it may be expected that this event will be of some significance.

Let us now have a closer look at Mercury. What immediately springs to mind is the fact that he is retrograde. To understand the significance of this, we may have a look at what traditional astrologers have to say about this.

Abu Ma’shar informs us in his Abbreviation of the Introduction to Astrology in the chapter on The Impotence of the Stars

“…  but the worst [is] the retrogradation of Venus and Mercury, particularly if they are hidden by the Sun; or [planets are] found [under the rays of the Sun or] in dark degrees.” (Dykes, Introductions to Traditional Astrology, p220).

This immediately cuts to the heart of the matter of our investigation about Mercury conjunct Sun. When applying to the conjunct with the Sun, Mercury will not only be retrograde, he will as well be under the sunbeams and later on combust. That is exactly the worst-case scenario, highlighted by Abu Ma’shar in the quote above.

To understand what this means, we have to look at the definitions of these two terms.

  • Firstly, a Planet is said to be combust when it is between 17.5 minutes and 8.5 degrees of the Sun.
  • Secondly, under the Sunbeams is a harmful area, extending from the end of combustion until a Planet is 17.5 degrees apart from the Sun.

William Lilly informs us in his Christian Astrology, that Mercury

“is cold and dry, and therefore Melancholy; with the good he is good, with the evil Planets ill; … he is author of subtlety, tricks, deceives, perjury, &c.” (CA, p77)

And Mercury will be very much afflicted on the 11th of November. We have established so far that he will be retrograde, under the sunbeams and later on, closer to perfecting the conjunction, combust. Apart from that he will be aspecting Saturn, the greater malefic.

If we put all this information together, we come to the following conclusion.

Due to his natural and also his debilitated state during the conjunction to the Sun, Mercury will not affect us in a positive, measured manner but he will rather test some of us to a high degree. There can even be some level of fanaticism expected. It is also very likely  that things will go wrong on an epic scale. Particularly electronic devices may unexpectedly malfunction, or the odd communication breakdown may occur. It is also not advisable to sign any kind of contract or agree to any binding arrangements during this transit.

Sun and Mercury are also conjunct fixed star Zubenelshamali. This is the determinant star of lunar mansion 14, al Zubana: Robson knows that this:

“hinders journeys and marriage, harvest and merchandise, favorable for redemption of captives.” [Robson, Fixed Stars and Constellations, p.72.]

It is likely that people who have Scorpio rising in their nativity or have their natal Sun or Mercury at or around 18* Scorpio will experience some of the effects of this conjunction.

The only time when the negative influence of the Sun will be turned into a more positive one is the time Mercury spends in the heart of the Sun, otherwise known as cazimi. This beneficial span of time, which is only very short, will be on 11th of November between 12:28UT and 18:16UT.

 

Review: Abu Ma’shar: On the Revolutions of the Years of Nativities (Persian Nativities IV)


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Benjamin Dykes (trans., ed.): Persian Nativities IV: Abu Ma’shar: On the Revolutions of the Years of Nativities, The Complete Arabic Edition, Cazimi Press, 2019, ISBN 978-1934586495

Having made successful use of profections, solar revolutions, primary directions, and transits in my natal predictive work for many years now, I was eagerly anticipating the publication of Dr. Dykes’ complete translation of Abu Ma’shar’s Arabic edition of On the Revolutions of the Years of Nativities. …

To read the full review, click on the cover to follow the link!