Richard Saunders on the Artificial Memory of Raymond Lull

Richard Saunders was a well known and respected medical practitioner and astrologer who practiced in London in the second half of the 17th century. M. H. Porter writes about the connection with Lilly in his ODNB entry about Saunders:

Saunders was a member of William Lilly’s circle, and acted as physician to Lilly and Elias Ashmole. He was referred to explicitly in condemnations and praises of astrologers alongside the more familiar names of Wharton, Gadbury, Booker, and Culpeper. Lilly once referred to him as ‘Philotheoros’. However, he seems to have been closest to Ashmole who, apart from being godfather to Richard’s son Charles, also bought some of Saunders’s books after he died. He stands out from the rest of Lilly’s circle in that he seems to have been the only one to have published on physiognomy.

He was probably best known for his almanac Apollo Anglicanus, which was published from 1654 until his death in 1675. In 1653 he published a lavishly illustrated folio entitled Physiognomie and Chiromancie, Metoposcopie. Saunders dedicated this work to Elias Ashmole and it contains appraisals by well known practitioners of the time amongst them William Lilly, John Booker and George Wharton.

What is of particular interest here is the part of Saunders’ work, dealing with the art of memory. Dame Frances Yates has traced the origins of Saunders’ interpretation of Lull’s art of memory:

The extremely magical art of memory of which Fludd has heard at Toulouse sounds like the ars notoria. Fludd might possibly be referring to Jean Belot who had been publishing in France earlier in the century works on chiromancy, physiognomy, and the art of memory … Belot’s highly magical artificial memory, in which he mentions Lull, Agrippa, and Bruno, is reprinted in the edition of his Oeuvres, Lyons, 1654, pp.329ff. The art of memory by R. Saunders (Physiognomie and Chiromancie … whereunto is added the Art of Memory, London, 1653, 1671) is based on that of Belot and repeats his mention of Bruno… (Yates, Art of Memory, p316n)

The Ars notoria, a Grimoire of the so called Salomonic cycle, was well known to William Lilly and his friends. Lilly himself owned a copy and used it in magical operations until he encountered problems and distanced himself from it.

Frances Yates explains the connection of the Ars notoria with the art of memory:

… appeared in the Middle Ages as the Ars notoria, a magical art of memory attributed to Apollonius or sometimes to Solomon. The practitioner of the Ars notoria gazed at figures or diagrams curiously marked and called notae whilst reciting magical prayers. He hoped to gain in this way knowledge, or memory, of all the arts and sciences, a different nota provided for each discipline. The Ars notoria is perhaps a bastard descendant of the classical art of memory, or of that difficult branch of it which used the shorthand notae. It was regarded as a particularly black kind of magic and was severely condemned by Thomas Aquinas. (Yates, Art of Memory, p56f)

Now follows the transcript of Saunders’ chapter on the art of memory from Physiognomie and Chiromancie … whereunto is added the Art of Memory, London, 1653, part 3, p33ff.

What Artificiall MEMORY is,


Chap I.

Artificiall Memory is nothing but an Art to assist the Naturall: for without the one the other cannot subsist: If there were not a Naturall Memory the Artificial would not avail much; but the Naturall having some inclination to an Art or Science, doubtlesse the Artificial is very serviceable to it, and by Artificial that may be shortned, which otherwise would take up a long time; and this is it wherein Raymundus Lullius hath bestowed his endeavours, and by his exquisite learning found out the perfection of this short Art and Artificiall Memory; which although he found out, yet did he conceal it under Riddles and Amphibologies; that the learned might be at the expense of some leasure to know and attain it. But I seeing how necessary this Art was to Preachers, Oratours, Advocates, or any who deal in Merchandise, am willing to explain it, and by the hand or Chiromancy much facilitate; and that so as the simple person that hath an inclination to anything shall attain to some perfection therein, by an Alphabet that comprehends all that we can imagine in our hand, as may be seen in the figure put thereafter to the purpose.

It is first to be noted that the more curious Ancients before Raymundus Lullius divided it in two, or else endeavoured to acquire it two manners of ways; The first was very dangerous, being by Medicaments and Medicines, which they took to purge out the more grosse humours, and so cleanse their minde, and consequently make it more fit to conceive all things. The second method which they followed was more apparent, which say they, had been revealed to Solomon by the Great God; of which Solomon the Scripture testifies that he knew all things, from the Hysop to the Cedar, that is to say, had all knowledge: Of this Science did write one Apellonius, whereof there is a Treatise inserted amongst the Works of Agrippa, full of Prayers, which for the most part consist of unknown words; yet hee hath come somewhat neer the truth; for in the figure which he puts for the secrets instead of making use of [Michael in Hebrew] i. e. Michael, if hee had made use of the name of ten letters after this forme, hee had arrived at the perfection.

Yet I finde the invention much more easie by the way of Chiromancy, having read Raymundus Lullius over and over again, and all those that have endeavoured to facilitate him, as Cornelius Agrippa, Jordanus, Brunus, Alstedius, Leuinkerus, and divers others, seeing they place and found all this Art in those ten letters A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I.K.

Thus also for our way of instruction we place them in the hand.

Chap. II.

The Places where we are to imagine those letters thus posited.

You see in the foregoing figure, where we place for the foundation of this Art, A in the middle of the hand, which in Chiromancy call the Plain of Mars, how that that letter is the base and foundation of this Science whereto the other nine letters are referred: Which thing the Rabbins also had observed in the name of God consisting of ten letters, which begin with Aleph, as you may see in the foregoing figure. For if it be any matter whereof we would treat, we must place it upon the imaginary A. and the definition and distinction upon the other letters, as we shall hereafter clearly demonstrate. B. which is the first letter of the circle is placed under the thumb in the mount of Venus; C. under the Fore-finger or mount of Jupiter; D. under the middle-finger; E. under the fourth; F. under the little one; G. under that upon the beginning of the Table line, H. upon the mount of the Moon; I. at the root of the line of life near the wrist; K. at the beginning at the mount of Venus. Having thus imagined them, conceive in thy minde upon every letter that point which thou desirest to treat of or remember.

Chap. III.

Why this Art is called the Short Art.

Raymundus Lullius a man consummate in all Arts and Sciences for the assistance of the naturall Memory found out this Art, for to shorten the Sciences, and cause all men to conceive them more compendiously, and render them in one moment able to discourse of those Arts and Sciences, and penetrate into their most secret principles, which they could not attain unto by ordinary labour and study all their life; nay if it were 80. Years, yet all their study could not to the one half, and therein be perfect; whereas this Art doth easily teach and enable a child of seven yeares of age to make all sorts of arguments. Those that are acquainted with it and have attained it, have given wonderfull effects thereof. Agrippa hath made it appeare , thou hee hath been pleased to abuse it as he did the other Sciences. But the true reason why he cryed down those Arts and Sciences, was to make appeare how well he understood them; for before ever he dispraised them, he said wonders of each of them. This spirit that had pierced into all things, would by that Ironie wipe out the blame which some tender and vain persons would impute to him. I have a resentment for the honour of Monsieur Beaulieu, Bonju, who hath offended both him and Ramus, in the Introduction of his Philosophy, for this offence is ever retorted on him that will offend such men.

The reason why he cannot by his dispraises quench their renown; is because they are immortall in the memory of learned men; but the Philosophy of the said Beaulieu was dead as soon as born. Agrippa was not the first that tasted that Science; but Simonides of Miletum, and the great and wise Captain Themistocles were all acquainted with it: And in these later ages, one Peter of Kavana, Francis Petrarch, and Hermannes Buschius, and since them Jordanus Brunus, that have done miracles in it. Yet it will be asked why Raymundus Lullius gave this Science the name of Short Art; he answers himself in his Prologue to the Art, briefly in these words: Ut ars magna facilius seiatur; nam scita ista arte supradicta’, etiam aliae artes de facili possunt seiri & adisci: Which is easily understood, for there is not any Science which is not abbreviated by the Memory; provided, that he who would attain it be disposed thereto by these ten letters; For as to Rhetorick, the definition is placed on B. the parts upon C. the three figures of Syllogisms, whereof each figure hath four manners, two concluding Universally, and two particularly , which are comprised in these two verses.

Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferio,

Caesare, Camestres, Festino, Baroco,

Darapti Felapton, &c.

All that is place upon D. The Sophism, Equivocations, Amphibologies, ignorance of the sophism, caption of the Antecedent upon the other letters.

Arithmetick; the definition upon B. which is a Science invented to teach how to number many unites. The first rule of it which is Numeration is placed divers other histories; you may imagine them by conceiving this configure of Multiplication.

For observe that he who knows Arithmetick, conceives and comprehends the numbers retained by another; as easily as he that is a lover of the Art can conceive, retain and learn all that he please upon these ten letters; nay may number without Addition, unlesse it be of the cipher, and thus is placed.

Somebody conceives in his minde one of these numbers, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. For to demonstrate it; cause him to treble the number which he hath conceived; divide the trebled number into two; but if upon the first meditation the trebled number be odde (which you must ask him whether it be or no) bid him make it even by the addition of a Unite, and then that he divide into two halfs.

Of this addition you shall take one, and bid him doe the like; but you shall keep two; and then bid him substract 9. as many times as he can out of his last number, and do you number so many times four, then if you have kept any thing you must adde it. As if one had thought on seaven, that trebled is twenty one, one added makes twenty two, the one half is eleventh, which being trebled makes thirty three, and that cannot be divided into halves without the addition of an unite, which being thirty four, whereof the half is seventeen, here cast away two, bid him substract nine as often as he can, which because it can be done but once, you shall gather four, then need look after what remains, if you have kept three, which added to four make 7. So also manage these letters, multiply them according to the numbers of words that you would advance. Take the pleasure first to place such words as these upon every letter so to exercise your memory.

B. Beauty, C. Charity, D. Deity, E. Excellency, F. Fortune, G. Greatnesse, H. Honour, K. Katherine; doe it backward and forward, and multiply them to increase your memory, B. Blesse, C. Christopher, D. Delight, E. Edisie, F. Fort, G. Glory, H. Honour, J. Jesus, K. Kalender, and argue upon every one of the words.

The first figure for B.

All goodnesse is commendable; Charity is goodnesse; Therefore, &c.


All virtue is commendable; Charity is a virtue; Therefore Charity is commendable.


Every good thing is commendable; Some pleasure is not good; Therfore, Some pleasure is not commendable.

So of the rest; but all thy arguments ought always to refer to the subject, whereof thou discoursest, the which is placed upon A. Thou being a Preacher, if thou wouldst discourse of Principles, or a Principle; place it upon A. in the hand, and then upon B. make this argument, if there be any priority in the Divinity, upon C. this Syllogisme.

Every Agent is before the Patient, the Father is Agent, and therefore Patient, Therefore, &c.

By this proceeding, placing on the other letters histories upon this subject, and not leaving in the memory these principall letters, of our science, they may do all. Nay a child of 7. years of age may in ten dayes by this Art  be made capable and fit in all Sciences, if so be he is of himself enclined thereto; argue and form Syllogisms like an able Logitian, upon any point that shall be proposed to him; for this Art has wondrous effects I those that fervently embrace it. Let the Merchant also in the same manner make his advantage of it, whose memory should be preserved to Eternity. If thou art pleased with it, assure thy self that shortly I shall present therewith a large Treatise of all Divine Mathematicks; wherein thou shall be shewed the secrets of the Caball Ghematrie of the Jews, and besides that, what ever is curious in the works of all those who have anything of Occult Philosophy, take only these Notes for earnest, and esteem me thy friend.

The End of the Treatise of Artificiall Memory, or the Art of R. Lullius.

Athanasius Kircher on the Celestial Spheres

Athansius Kircher was a Jesuit scholar who lived between 1602 and 1680. He was born in Germany and lived there and in France, until in 1633 the Austrian Emperor called him to Vienna to succeed Kepler as mathematician of the Habsburg court. On the way there Kircher’s ship was blown off course and he ended up in Rome, where he spent the rest of his life. He published 40 books on various subjects in the fields of Egyptology, geology and medicine. Although he was a contemporary of Rene Descartes, whose rationalism was beginning to  change the world for ever, Kircher’s thinking was still rooted in the Renaissance and particularly in Ficinian Neoplatonism. In his works he extensively quotes from Ficino’s translation of the Corpus Hermeticum, the Pimander and the Asclepius. He even gives his own version of Dee’s Monas Hieroglyphica in his Obe eliscus Pamphilius, published in 1650. Although a Jesuit, Kircher was involved in natural magic; he rejected daemonic magic, but was a Cabalist, trying to establish a synthesis between Hermetism and Cabalism in the sense of Pico della Mirandola.

What is of interest in the context of celestial spheres (see as well my web log entry On the Nine Spheres of Heaven) is a plate of comparative pictures of different cosmological systems. The plate reproduced here was first published by Kircher in his Iter Extaticum, Rome 1671. A pdf version of this book can be accessed here: Iter Extaticum

The plate depicts the following cosmological systems:

I. The Ptolemaic system

This is the basic system with the earth at its centre; the seven spheres of the Planets (moon, Mercury, Venus, sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) surround the earth. They are all moving in concentric circles. Above the sphere of Saturn are placed the spheres of the fixed stars and the zodiac. This model was in use until it was overturned by the Copernican revolution.

II. The Platonic system

For Plato the cosmos was principally the image of the cosmic soul, mixed together from the three ingredients, being, sameness and difference, each of which is an intermediate state between the indivisibility of the noetic world and the divisibility of perceptible phenomena. It was structured by the demiurge, who indicated time by placing circular moving heavenly bodies in the circuits of the cosmic soul. For an in-depth discussion of this subject see Plato’s Timaeus, 34b-36b. Note hat Plato puts the sun directly above the moon.

III. The pseudo-Egyptian system

This system was adopted by Vitruvius who lived between ca 80 – 70 BC and 15 BC. He was a Roman writer and architect who was rediscovered in the Renaissance. Here Mercury and Venus are revolving around the sun. Like the other Planets, the sun revolves around the earth.

IV. and V. Tycho Brahe’s system

This system was suggested by Tycho Brahe, who lived between 1546 and 1601, was a famous astronomer and alchemist. He tried to combine the Copernican system with the Ptolemaic system, the so-called Tychonic system. In his system there are two centres; the sun revolves around the earth and is at the same time the centre of the five other planets.

VI. The Copernican system

In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus, the famous Renaissance astronomer, formulated his heliocentric cosmology. His book De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium can be regarded as the first textbook of modern astronomy. Having put the sun in the centre of the celestial spheres, he showed that his system corresponded with the Hermetic idea of the refinement of matter from lead (Saturn) towards gold (Sun), represented by the innermost, central position of the sun. Nevertheless Copernicus’ discovery was predated by the vision of Nicholas of Cusa, a German bishop, who lived between 1404 and 1461. Cusa was a Neoplatonist who reached the conclusion that the earth, rotating on its own axis, was circling the sun already in 1445. Nicolaus Copernicus, Giordano Bruno, Johnnes Kepler and Galileo Galilei were all aware of Cusa’s writings. Giordano Bruno often quoted Cusa in stating that “because God was infinite the universe would reflect this fact in boundless immensity”.