William Lilly’s Precious Stones

When William Lilly wrote his Christian Astrology in 1647, he included chapters on the seven planets and their significations in the introductory part. These chapters include, amongst a lot of other material, the correspondences between planets and precious stones. What is of interest here is the source material Lilly used for his book.

The bibliography appended to Christian Astrology gives us some information as to where his knowledge came from and in the following I want to shed more light on this subject.

One of Lilly’s main sources seems to be Cornelius Agrippa’s De Occulta Philosophia, written between 1509 and 1510 and printed for the first time in 1533. Lilly does not provide us with much detail about the edition he used, only that its format would be octavo and that it had been printed in Lugduni. There was indeed an edition printed in 1543 in Lyon, which might be the one Lilly had in his library. I used the first English translation from 1651 for my research, an edition published just a bit too late to be used by Lilly for his Christian Astrology.

Another book Lilly might have used as a source to establish the correspondences between planets and gemstones is Johannes Schöner’s Opera Mathematica, Nuremberg 1551, which is as well included in Lilly’s bibliography.

Although he claims that Schöner’s book would not be methodical, Lilly calls it a good one and it seems to have been hugely popular at the time. Nicolaus Rensberger, for example, copied the information about gemstones and planets for his Astronomia Teutsch straight out of Opera Mathematica.

 The following tables show the possible sources of  Lilly’s correspondences and I have included some explanatory footnotes.

 

Saturn Agrippa Schöner ???
      Lapis Lazuli
  Sapphire    
  All black and ugly stones    

 

Jupiter Agrippa Schöner ???
    Amethyst  
      Bezoar*
      Crystals**
  Hyazinth    
    Sapphire  
  Smarage (Emerald) Smarage (Emerald)  
      Topaz

 

*Al Biruni says about the Bezoar Stone:

“The early authors have said that a well-known stone is so named, although they have omitted to mention its characteristics and features.

As a matter of fact, this stone should have been the costliest among
stones, for, whereas jewels are things of the body and adornment, and
are of no use in bodily ailments, the bezoar stone guards the body and
the soul and saves them from being harmed. We did not describe it
before all the other stones, thinking it more logical that it should be described along with stones belonging to its genus. Muhammad bin
Zakariya Razi says:

“The kind that I saw was soft like the Yemenite alum. It scattered

and broke into pieces. I am filled with amazement at its wonderful

effect”.

Abu ‘Ali ibn Mandawayh says that it is pale with white and green
hues mixed with it. Hamzah and Nasr both say that it is primarily
associated with India and China. In the Kitab al-Nukhab it has been saidthat its mine is in the mountain of Zarand within the boundaries of Kirman.

Hamzah and Nasr have described fine kinds of the stones. These are
white, yellow, green, dusty and abrasive. Nasr has, however, selected
the dusty kind. He has prescribed a dose of twelve barley grains for the
poisonous kind. The author of the Kitab al-Nukhab says that one kind
of it is beet green and pale, while another kind is reddish-white. One
kind is thin and has something filled inside it. It is called the snot of
Satan and the Warlock’s thread.”

 

**John Maplet describes Crystals as Follows: “The Cristall is one of those stones that shyneth in everie part, and is in colour waerie. Isidore saith, that it is nothing else then a congeled Ise by continuance frosen whole yeares. It groweth in Asia and Cyperus, and especially upon the Alpes and highe Mountains of the North Pole. It engendreth not so much of the waters coldnesse, as of the earthinesse mixt withall. His propertie is to abide nothing in qualitie contrarie to it selfe: therefore it is delighted only with colde.”

 

Mars Agrippa Schöner ???
  Adamant    
  Amethyst    
  Bloodstone* Hemanites*  
  Jasper Jasper  
  Loadstone**    
  Touchstone***    

 

*Bloodstone is these days a name for Jasper which is dotted with red spots of iron oxide, but it is as well a name for Hematite, which could be indicated in Schöner. Rensberger has altered it to Hematite in his Astronomia Teutsch.

 

**John Maplet describes the Loadstone as follows: “The Lodestone commeth from Indie, and is almost Iron colour like. It is founde most rife amongst the Trogloditas people, in the furthest part of Affrick, beyond Aethiopia, who are saide to dwell in Caves, and to eate Serpents flesh. It draweth Iron to it, even as one Lover cueteth and desireth an other. The common people therefore having sometime seene this so done by secret and unknowne working, have iudged and reputed ye Iron lively. There is another kind of Lodestone in Thessalie, that is of contrarie set and disposition, which will have non of Iron, nor will meddle with it. But for the other that is reckned principall and best, which in colour is blue. Saint Augustine saith, that if any man put under any vessel eyther golden or brasse, or holde under these any peece of Iron, and lay above the vessels or upon them this Lodestone, that even through the verie motion or moving of the stone underneath, the Iron shall move up and meete with it as nigh as the vessell wil suffer at the verie top.”

 

***Touchstone is a hard dark siliceous stone, such as basalt or jasper, that is used to test the quality of gold and silver from the colour of the streak they produce on it.

 

Sun Agrippa Schöner ???
      Adamant
  Carbuncle*    
  Chrysolithe    
  Etites**    
  Hyacinth Hyacinth  
  Ruby    

 

 *John Maplet’s description of Carbuncle: “The Carbuncle is a stone very precious, so called for that (like to a fierie cole) it giveth light, but especially in the night  season: it so warreth with the pupill or the eiesight, that it sheweth manifolde reflexions. It has as some say. xv. kindes: but those most precious that come nigh the Carbuncles nature: it is found in Libia.”

 

**Sometimes called Echites, Maplet says: “Echites is a stone both of Indie and Persia, which in the shore and Sea banckes of the Ocean, in the verie bosome of the Indian and Persian Sea, it is found: it is in colour Violet like: And there is a paire of them, Male & Female, and be most commonly found both togither in the Eagles nest, without the which the Eagle can not bring forth hir yong: and therfore kepeth them, as most necessarie in this behalfe alwaies in hir Nest. These stones bound to a womans bodie, being with childe, do hasten childe birth. And Iorach saith, that if any man have these or one of these, and put it under that mans meate or trencher that he suspecteth to be in fault of any thing: If that he be guiltie, he shall not be able through this to swallowe downe his meate: If not saith he, he may.”

 

Venus Agrippa Schöner ???
      Beryl*
      Chrysolite**
  Cornelian    
  Lapis Lazuli    
     ?Margarit***? Margasite***
    Sappire (sky coloured)  

 

* Maplet talks of a green Berill, colour of Venus, which seems apt.

 

**Chrysolite , also called Olivin or Peridot is of green colour, fitting for Venus.

 

***Lilly calls it a Margasite, it is ‘Margarit’ in Schoener and ‘Margaret’ in Maplet, who describes it as follows: “The Margaret of all Gemmes, those which be in their kindes white, is esteemed the chiefest: as Isidore consenteth, with others herein. Which kinde he will also have thus named, for that is founde growing in the meate of certain shell fishes, and those of the Sea, as in the Sea Snaile, and in the greatest Oyster, and such like as have their shell. It is engendred of a certain heavenly dewe, which in a certaine time of the yeare, both the Sea Snaile and the Cockle doe take and drik up. Of the which kinde of stone certaine are called Vnions, for that by one and one, they be founde, and never above one: there be some of these also seene sometimes yellow, but the other are the verie best.”

 

Mercury Agrippa Schöner ???
  Achates    
  Marchasite    
  Topaz    

 

Moon Agrippa Schöner ???
  Selenite    
  Crystals Crystals  
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The Precious Stones of John Maplet’s Greene Forest, part 2

The first part of this article about gemstones can be found at https://starsandstones.wordpress.com/2009/04/23/the-precious-stones-of-john-maplets-greene-forest-part-1/ 

Of Ematites

Ematites is a stone somewhat ruddie, somewhat sanguine, found both in Affrick, in Indie and in Arabie: so named for that it resolveth & chaungeth oft into a bloudie colour: and is called of some stench bloud, for that it stoppeth his vent or course of flowing.

Of Gagates 

Gagates is of the precious sort also, which was first found in Sicilie in a certain floud called Gagatus of the which it tooke his name: although that in Britannie, it is a good geast & somewhat common as Isidore saith: It hath two kindes, the one russet in colour, and the other black, this last easie to be fiered, and as smokie as Frankinsence. It being left in the place where Serpents breede, driveth them cleane away. And Diascorides saith, that this being put into ye drink of a Maide or Virgin will easilye give you iudgement whether that she be a true and right Maide yea or no. For saith he, after that she hath drunke of this and does not anone after make water, but can continue, than take hir and esteeme hir a pure Virgin, and contrarywise, if she doe not continue and stay herein some season, iudge of hir otherwise. 

Of the Jasper

The Jasper is a Gem verie greene, like to the Smaragde, but of little more grosse colour. Isid. saith that this has. xvii. severall kinds and he calleth it the greene stone. That of Cypria, (saith Harmolaus) is more duskie coloured and grosse: That of Persia is like to the Ayre, for the which it is called Aerizula: That of Phrygia is purple coloured: There hath bene in ancient time seene a Jasper in waight. xi. Ounces. There is also in the heade of the Serpent Aspis found a little stone much like to the Jasper of marvailos vertue, which some by cutting away the first letter, have called Aspis. It is thought to have so many wayes in working as it has kindes.

Of the Jacinct

The Jacinct is blew, and of nigh neighborhoode with the Saphire. This is a marvellous turncote, for that it doth conforme it self to all settes and dispositions of the Ayre, for being helde in the cloudie and dark Ayre, becommeth also cloudie and darke: and beeing in the bright and cleare Ayre, becommeth also both bright and cleare. It is taken to be medicinable, to give vigor and strength to the lims, to encrease the sinewes, and to provoke quiet and sound sleepe.

Of Iris 

Iris is a kinde of Stone Mathematicallye wrought, as being digged up in forme fire cornered, which at the first was found nigh the red Sea: but is now found in many places, as in Germanie, in Irelande, and in the North parts and quarters, and is of colour as cleare as the Cristall. It is called Iris for likeloode to the Rainebow, which being touched & stricken of the Sunne his beames, under any covert doth represent and shewe both the figure and colours of the Rainebow upon the wall next to it, and that oppositely, as Diascorides saith, it hath the same force and working that the Berill hath, but is not in quantitie so great.

Of the Stone Kaman

Kaman, the stone may well be called a turncote, for that it is now blacke, now white, now shamefast & blushing. And is in colours very diverse, and therfore it is called Kama, as you would say in Greeke Kauma soone kindled. It is found in hote places, and especially in those that have good store of Brimstone and be Sulphureous: as Diascorides reporteth. It helpeth sayth he the dropsie: and is easie to be engraven and carved in.

Of the stone Ligurius

Ligurius, is a stone in colour lyke to Tin. It is engendred in the entrailes and privities of Lynx the wilde Beast, and is of that vertue that it draweth to it any offall chaffe or straw. It also helpeth paine in the stomack, and bewrayeth Venome or Poyson.

Of the Lodestone

The Lodestone commeth from Indie, and is almost Iron colour like. It is founde most rife amongst the Trogloditas people, in the furthest part of Affrick, beyond Aethiopia, who are saide to dwell in Caves, and to eate Serpents flesh. It draweth Iron to it, even as one Lover cueteth and desireth an other. The common people therefore having sometime seene this so done by secret and unknowne working, have iudged and reputed ye Iron lively. There is another kind of Lodestone in Thessalie, that is of contrarie set and disposition, which will have non of Iron, nor will meddle with it. But for the other that is reckned principall and best, which in colour is blue. Saint Augustine saith, that if any man put under any vessel eyther golden or brasse, or holde under these any peece of Iron, and lay above the vessels or upon them this Lodestone, that even through the verie motion or moving of the stone underneath, the Iron shall move up and meete with it as nigh as the vessell wil suffer at the verie top.

Of the Margaret

The Margaret of all Gemmes, those which be in their kindes white, is esteemed the chiefest: as Isidore consenteth, with others herein. Which kinde he will also have thus named, for that is founde growing in the meate of certain shell fishes, and those of the Sea, as in the Sea Snaile, and in the greatest Oyster, and such like as have their shell. It is engendred of a certain heavenly dewe, which in a certaine time of the yeare, both the Sea Snaile and the Cockle doe take and drik up. Of the which kinde of stone certaine are called Vnions, for that by one and one, they be founde, and never above one: there be some of these also seene sometimes yellow, but the other are the verie best.

Of the Marble

The Marble by Greeke worde and name is interpreted greene. There are Marbles in great and huge bignesse, and length: which are of many esteemed and had in reputation for their spottes and colours. The sorts and kinds of Marble are infinite: for not every of them are hewen forth out of Rockes: but many be dispersed under the earth, as the Marble with the Lacedemonians, which is both greene and precious: So likewise that kinde of Marble which is called Ophites, which hath spottes like a Serpent, is much esteemed. Of Ophites two sortes are mentioned: the first white and soft, the other black and hard. There is another kinde almost Corall like, found in Asia, having certaine blottes besprent upon it and about it proporcionally. There is also a Thebane Marble dipped here and there, and dyed like in maner to golden droppes, and is found in a part of Aegypt. There are other kindes also which breede and have the very rocks to be their shop houses, as ye Marble in Corinth, whereof whole Pillars and great Beames are made. And there is another Marble called Caristeum verie greene, having his name of his good looke, for that it is avayleable to their eyesight that engrave therein. The greene colour hereof refresheth the eies. Marble therefore is more sounde, more faire, more profitable than any other stones are, with Lead and not with Iron (contrarie to all others wont) all stones of Marble are hewen and cut, which thing is marveilous. For neyther with Steele nor yet with Iron, neyther with Mallet nor cutting Shears, neyther with Sawe by any force or striving withall, it is subdued.

Of Nesorpora or Todes stone 

Nesorpora is astone of Pontus, verie preciuos, marveilous white, and as they say, it is found in a Todes heade, out of the which it is plucked and taken forth, and is purified by lying a certaine space steeping in strong wines and running water, as Diascorides beareth witnesse. In this stone is apparantly seene verie often the verie form of a Tode, with bespotted and coloured feete, but those uglye and defusedly. It is available against invenoming.

Of Onix or Onichus

Onix of some Onichus, is stone of Indie and Arabie, having colours all about it intermedled verie like to a mans naile: wherupon the Greekes call our naile Onikin. That of Indie hath a colour like to fire, & is dyed with white Vaines or Zones. That of Arabie is black, yet died with white Lines or Zones. It hath many kindes of Sardonix, so called for that by commixture of the Onix which is white and Sardus which is red, it becometh but one of them both. It being borne about one, riddeth him of feare: and in maner of a Glasse it sheweth a mans visage, as saith Diascorides.

Of Oppalus

Oppalus (as saith Diascorides) is a stone in colour like to very many, and those cleane contrarie Gems. For it representeth in some part as good a greene colour as the Smaragde: in some other part it looketh like Purple, and in another part like to a whote Cole as the Carbuncle doth.

Of Pirrites

Pirrites is a kinde of stone, yealow, like to the fire his flame, and in the qualitie almost all one with the fire: for the which I suppose it tooke his name, it is soone kindled and set on fire. It also sparckleth, and being hardly holden & pressed in any mans hande burneth him fore or he percieveth it. Wherupon the Lapidare hath these two Verses.

The Pirrite must with easie hand And marvellous soft enholden be: For being prest and helde to hard Doth burne thy flesh or ere thou se.

Of the Rubie

The Rubie is a stone which of some is supposed to be found in the Crabs heade, most commonly red, yet not withstanding sometimes found in yealow colour. It availeth against the biting of the Scorpion and Weasell, if it be applied thereto plaister like.

Of the Sapphir

The Sapphir is Skie coloured or blew, like to the Skie in the most faire weather. It is one of the Noblest and royall sorts amongst al Gemmes, and most meete to be worne onely upon Kings and Princes fingers. This for his soveraigntie of the Lapidare, is called ye Gem of Gemmes. It is found most especially in Indie, although that sometimes, otherwhere. Cardane sayth, that it is next and above the Adamant in reputation: first or last in the degree of those Gemmes that be noble and precious: he sayth also, it is good (if it be not otherwise overlaide) to the eiesight, and that nothing in the whole worlde, doth more recreate or delight the eies than Smaradge & Sapphir doe. Albartus Magnus saith, that he hath proved it twise, that with the onely touching of this precious stone, the partie so diseased, hath bene rid of the grievous sore the Carbuncle. It is mervelously effectuous against al venome. Wherefore, if thou put a Spider into a Bor, and upon the mouth of the Bor, being shut thou layest the true Sapphir and keepe the Spyder but a verie shorte time within the same, the Spider being vanquished and overcome by such mean of close vertue dieth sodainly. In olde time it was consecrated onelye to Apollo: for the which they thought their businesse in Warres and affaires at home might be the sooner ended, if through such meanes they had enriched and honoured him, who by Oracle in all things those which were waightiest made only the aunswere.

Of the Samradge

The Smaradge hath his name of his excellent and fresh greene colour. For everye thing that is grassie greene, is properly called in Greeke Smaron. It passeth both the leafe and bough of any Tree or plant in this his colour, and in this poynt alone triumphet, neyther is the Sunne by his Sunne beames, any let or hinderance to this his shew. There is no greater refection to the eies than the sight of this. It being polished and dressed, sheweth a man his lively image, whereupon the valiant Caefar had no greater delight, than in looking on this, to see his Warriours fight, and to behold in the Smaragde which of them went best to worke, and was moste active. Isidore sayth, that there be. xii. kindes hereof, but the moste noble is found in Scithia, the next in Bactria. This stone sayth Cardane, serveth to devination, and to tell of a certaintie, things to come, or otherwise. For that that shall come to passe, it will never let it sincke or slip out of minde, and that shall not, it easily suffereth the minde to forget.

Of the Topaze

The Topaze as Plinie sayth, is a Gem of grassie colour: although that in Germanie it is found like to Golde. It was first found in Arabie, in a certaine Ilande there: whereas the people Troglodite such as live by Snakes flesh and other Serpents, being compelled thorow verie extreeme hunger: and they also beeing on the water or Sea, drive thither by tempest, and so both weared and hungrie, digging up the Rootes of certain Hearbes, by hap and chance pulled up this. This Iland afterwards was sought of Mariners and Marchants, and was ransaked where as they founde (having had of them knowledge hereof) their best Marchandise. After that, for those peoples sake, by whom they had so wonne and done so well, they would never chaunge the name hereof, but after their proper and peculiar speach called it a Topaze. For Topazein in Greeke is as much, as to finde by seeking. Plinie sayth, that it hath bene found of that bignesse and quantitie that Philadelphus is saide to have framed, and made thereof a statue or Image in lenght of foure Cubits.

Of the Turches

The Turches or Turcois, is of the common sort called Eranus. It is in colour airelike or like to the Heavens, and looketh cleare also as sayth Cardane. It is called a Turches for that it is only found in Turkland or amongst the Turkes. This hath such vertue and hid maner in working, that it supporteth and sustaineth, being worne in a ring, a man from falling of his horse, and is saide of the above saide Author to receyve the daunger of the fal it self, and to breake and burst in sunder, rather than the man should fall and miscarie.

The Precious Stones of John Maplet’s Greene Forest, part 1

In 1567 John Maplet published a book with the title A greene Forest, or a naturall Historie, Wherein may bee seene first the most sufferaigne Vertues in all the whole kinde of Stones & Mettals. In the first part of his book he gives a description of nearly 80 stones and metals. Some of these are still well known to us today, some are long forgotten.

In the past readers of this web log may have come across strange names of stones in Cornelius Agrippa’s Books of Occult Philosophy or William Lilly’s Christian Astrology. Descriptions of most of these gemstones can be found in John Maplet’s book.  To make this knowledge widely available I will reproduce the most interesting bits here.

Of the Adamant Stone

The Adamant is a Stone of Inde, small and rare, in colour like to Iron; but in cleare reflection and representation of image more Christall like: It is founde in bignesse of a Walnut, and never above: It yeeldeth or giveth place to nothing; neither is it heat by iron or fire. Wherfore the Greekes call it Fickleforce, for that it can not be brought under. But whiles it is invincible or can not be wonne that way: yet notwithstanding with the warme and freshe blood of the Goate, it breaketh and riveth in sunder. It differeth from the Lode Stone for that the Adamant placed neare any iron, will not suffer it to be drawn away of the Lode Stone. Diascorides saith that is called the Stone of reconsiliation and love: for (saith he) that woman that hath withdrawne hir love from hir husband, by this, is brought to love him anew: yea, it goeth furder: for it is said to give proufe whether she be chast or no: for if she be say they, she shal whylest she is in sleepe imbrace hir husband through the working of this stone, if not, she shall flie and go back from him.

Of Alabaster

Alabaster, as saith Isidore, in his xvi. bwke and fift Chapter, is a white kinde of stone died, and bespotted among with divers & sundrie colours. Hereof are made vessels to keepe and containe all Ointments uncorrupt, wherin they be most purely and safely preserved. It groweth about Thebis and Damascum, and especiallye that which is whitest. But the best of this kinde is brought from Indie. It being borne about one, say some, keepeth him in amitie and charitie with all men.

Of the Amitist

The Amitist also groweth in Indie: It is Princes among those Gemes that be Purple coloured. Diascorides sayth, that there be five kindes thereof: but that which is Purple coloured, he reckeneth the chiefest. His force or vertue availeth against drunkenesse, it kepeth a man waking, and driveth away ill cogitations and thouhts, it sharpeth the understanding. And is also one of those sortes that is easie to engrave in.

Of Achates

Achates is a kinde of Gemme, but lack in colour, enterlined here & there with white vaines: and it is called Achates of a certaine floud of that name in Cicilie, about the which floud this Achates was first found. There is a certain kind hereof seene sometimes in Crete as Diascorides witnesseth, having strokes on eche side like to blew vaines. There is another kinde in Indie bespotted on everie parte with spottes like bloud. That of Crete is said to make a man gracious, and to bring him in favour. That of Indie is gwd for the eiesight it remedieth venome, and being put into the fire is odoriferus.

Of  the Stone Albeston

Albeston is a stone of Archadie, in yron colour, having gotten his name of the fire, for that it being once set on fire, can never after be quenched or put out: Whereof in olde time was built that kind of worke Mechanicall, whereas the Gentiles being once taken in sacriledge, dyed. Isidore sayth in his xvi. bwke, that in a certaine temple of Venus there was made and hung up such a Candlesticke, wherein was a light burning on that wise, that no tempest nor storme could put it out, & he beleveth that this Candlesticke had somewhat of Albeston beset within.

Of Amatites

Amatites is that kinde of Gemme, that touching a mans Vesture or Garment, it maketh it able to resist fire: so that it being afterwards cast into ye fire hath no power to burne, but though the fires brightnesse becommeth more bright it selfe. Thus saith Isidore in his xvi. bwk.

Of Astrion

Astrion is a Gem, founde first in Indie, of verie nigh consanguinitie with the Christall, in whose Centre or middle point: as saith Diascorides, a certaine light is seene shining, without reflexion much like to the Moone. The same Author also thinketh that this light that it has, it taketh of the starres, against ye which it is helden.

Of the Berill

Berill is a stone rare, but not so precious, for it alone groweth in Indie: it is founde greene like to the Smaradge. It is first found also raw and rude without eyther good looke or pleasant shelve, but afterwards it is better polished of them of Indie, and they use to polish it in maner and forme of Angle or Corner, to the intent that through ye dullnesse of his owne colour, this maner might shew some glittring the light having his stay in everie eche corner: Some say, they fashion it at the first seaven cornered: and otherwise they say it shimmereth not. There is also another kinde of Berill, which of the Greeke worde is called Golden Berill, as sayth Diascorides, whose interchanged greene colour resembleth almost the wan and yelow colour of Golde. They say that this being borne about a man, and being put now and than to his eies, kepeth a man out of perill of his enimies.

Of the Corall

The Corall groweth in the red Sea, and so long as it is and hath his being in the waters, it is a kinde of Wood, but by and by after that it is taken forth of the water and cometh into the ayre (and his reach) it hardeneth, and becommeth a stone. His boughes under the water are espied white and tender: and being by chaunce through holdefast Nets in part or parcell brought to lande, chaunge also their colour and become red, and for their feeling, are as hard stones. Isidore in his. xvi. bwke. The Mages reporte that it resisteth Lightninges. Therefore even as much worth and of estimation as is the precious Margaret, that, that cometh from Indie, so much worth and in estimatio, like wise is the Coral we them of Indie. Hereof are said to be two onely kindes, the one red & the other white: this last is never found in bignesse & in length more than halfe a fwte: that other often bigger and longer. They say that it is of power to rid us from all divelishe dreams and pievish fantasies.

Of the Carbuncle

The Carbuncle is a stone very precious, so called for that (like to a fierie cole) it giveth light, but especially in the night  season: it so warreth with the pupill or the eiesight, that it sheweth manifolde reflexions. It has as some say. xv. kindes: but those most precious that come nigh the Carbuncles nature: it is found in Libia.

Of the Cristall

The Cristall is one of those stones that shyneth in everie part, and is in colour waerie. Isidore saith, that it is nothing else then a congeled Ise by continuance frosen whole yeares. It groweth in Asia and Cyperus, and especially upon the Alpes and highe Mountains of the North Pole. It engendreth not so much of the waters coldnesse, as of the earthinesse mixt withall. His propertie is to abide nothing in qualitie contrarie to it selfe: therefore it is delighted only with colde.

Of the Diamond

The Diamond is one of those that be counted something precious, it is in colour almost Christallike but somewhat more resplendishing, and is as gwd (if it be of any bignesse) as a looking glasse. Iorach calleth it an other eie: such certaintie & truth giveth it in things done in his presence.

Of Dracontides

Dracontides as his name also mentioneth, is plucked forth of the heade or braine of a Dragon, which onely is in bright and fierie colour (as sayth Isidore) as long as, it is come by, the Dragon being alive: wherfore the Mages skilled in this point, cut it forth out of the Dragon his braine, he being by meanes cast in to sleepe. The moste bolde and adventerous men, are said, to seeke out the lurking holes of the Dragon, and whilest that the Dragon is from home, these men bestrew his Lodge with certaine Graine, which being recieved of the Dragon, bringeth him into a deade sleepe. And whilest they have thus brought their purpose to passe they rippe in sunder the noddle of his head to take forth the Gem, and after that sow it up againe and so depart.

Of  Echites

Echites is a stone both of Indie and Persia, which in the shore and Sea banckes of the Ocean, in the verie bosome of the Indian and Persian Sea, it is found: it is in colour Violet like: And there is a paire of them, Male & Female, and be most commonly found both togither in the Eagles nest, without the which the Eagle can not bring forth hir yong: and therfore kepeth them, as most necessarie in this behalfe alwaies in hir Nest. These stones bound to a womans bodie, being with childe, do hasten childe birth. And Iorach saith, that if any man have these or one of these, and put it under that mans meate or trencher that he suspecteth to be in fault of any thing: If that he be guiltie, he shall not be able through this to swallowe downe his meate: If not saith he, he may.

Of Elutropia

Elutropia is a Gemme, in colour greene, or grassie, in part coloured and bespotted with Purple speckes & bloud coloured vaines. This is a marvellous Jugler, for it wil cause things obiect to be presented to our eies as it lifteth. It being put into a Basan of water chaungeth to a mans eiesight the Sunne his beames, and giveth them a contrarie colour. Being also mooved and beaten in the ayre, maketh to appeare a bloudie Sunne, and darkneth the ayre in maner of an Eclipse: and therfore it is called Eloutropia as you would say, the Sunne his enimie. There is of this name also a certaine Hearbe which Enchaunters & Witches have oftentimes used, and doe use, as also that above said, whereby they have mocked and deluded many, which by meanes and working and enchauntment, have so dazeled the beholders eies, that they have gone by them invisibly.

to be continued…………………..