Saunders’ Excellent Astrological Observations and Aphorisms concerning Diseases and Sick persons

Richard Saunders, a native of Warwickshire, was born in 1613, and became a well-known practitioner of astrology and chiromancy from about 1647 onwards. William Lilly referred to him as an ‘old and valued friend’, and he was also a friend and admirer of the famous antiquarian and astrologer Elias Ashmore. Saunders was well versed in astrological medicine, with over 35 years of practice.

Saunders’ main publications, of which some are still in print today, include:

The Astrological Judgment and Practice of Physick, deduced from the Position of the Heavens at the Decumbiture of a Sick Person, London, 1677. The book is a systematic exposition of astrological therapeutics.

Palmistry, the Secrets thereof disclosed, 2nd edit., London, 1664.

Phisiognomie, Chiromancie … and the Art of Memorie, London, 1653 (A  second edition, very much enlarged, and dealing with ‘Metoposcopie, the Symmetrical Proportions and Signal Moles of the Body,’ appeared in 167).

decumbiture 1

Saunders also published almanacs, of which copies are extant for the years 1681, 1684, and 1686. The following is a transcript of a piece, first published in his Apollo Anglicanus for 1681:

Excellent Astrological Observations and Aphorisms concerning Diseases and Sick persons

Astrologians (that are addicted to Coelestial Contemplations, and well versed therein) do observe not only the day, but also the very hour and minute when any Person first fell sick, & for that Moment of time, to erect a Figure for the Position of heaven, then observing the Hyligiacal places, the Lord of the Ascendant and Significators of the Disease, from whose constitution or position, good or bad, they do conjecture and foretel of the Disease, whether it will terminate in Life or Death, or whether it should be long or short of continuance.

But how difficult that time is to be gained, Galen the Prince of Physicians himself confesses, that he laboured very much for the investigation thereof, Quid igitur? Shall we flight or lay aside this most excellent part of Philosophy which the Antients have so diligently enquired after, and admired? Shall we think it impossible? I confess in the first Assault of Fevers, and not a few other Diseases and Distempers, this is with much difficulty to be found out, but in Vertigo’s, Falling sickness, Apoplexies, Palsies, Fluxes of Blood, Pleurisies, Vomiting of Blood, Palpitations of the Heart and Stomach wounds, and many other such like; very often the first insult is known, by which means the Artist hath a large Field to exercise his Observations in, therefore in these or the like diseases, let us observe the following Aphorismas, viz.

(1) When the Ascendant at the first time of any persons falling sick shall be adverse, in opposition, square or contrantiscion to the Horoscopes or Ascendants of the said parties Nativity, there is little hope of Life, unless there be some good Transits or Directions to alleviate the malignity of the evil one then operating. Now the adverse signs are when the 4, 6, 7, 8. Houses in the decumbiture, shall be the Ascendant of the Nativity, or when the Ascendant of the decumbiture shall be in the signs of any of those Houses in the Nativity, but this Aphorisme is of little use unless the Physician knows the parties Geniture, which is of most excellent use.

(2) When the five Hyligiacal places shall be oppressed, together with the Lord of the Ascendant, death I follows, unless there be a benigne Reception of the Infortunes and other places shall also well happen, and these Fortunes likewise project their beams, I say if these things happen the sick party shall evade his disease in a Miraculous manner beyond all expectation.

(3) He that falls sick in the hour of Mars, his infirmity proceeds from a Hot cause, and if in the hour of Saturn, it comes from a cold cause; but the common Planetary hours in this case are to be rejected, and those are to be admitted, which are accounted from Sun Rising or Setting, allowing to every 15 Deg. of the Ecliptick one hour, according to the Judgment of some Astrologers.

(4) The Lord of the Ascendant, or Lord of the Figure combust without doubt signifies Death; unless they shall be received of the Sun, or the Sun receives them; so likewise if the Moon be safe, there is hopes of Recovery in the greatest Danger. (5) The Lord of the Ascendant and the Moon, with the Lord of the eights House, without the beams of Fortunes denotes Death. (6) The Lord of the eight in an Angle, and the Lord of the Ascendant, in a cadent House, is ever deadly, and the worse if he be an infortune. (7) The Moon applying to any Planet in the 8th House is ever more deadly. (8) The Lord of the Ascendant applying to the Lord of the 8th. or to Stars posited therein, and to the Moon any manner of way corrupted, denotes Death. (9) The Moon carrying the Light of the Lord of the Ascendant to the Lord of the 8th. denotes death. (10) The Lord of the 8th. in the Ascendant is ever fatal, if the Lord of the Ascendant and the Moon shall be afflicted or corrupted by the Bodies or ill beams of the infortunes. (11) The Lord of the Ascendant in the 8th and the Moon corrupt is death. (12) The Lord of the Ascendant posited under the Earth, and be in ill Aspect with the Lord of the 8th. posited therein, or in the 4th. House, it is a signal token of death. (13) The Lord of the Ascendant which the Lord of the 4th. 6th. 7th. or 12th. is dangerous and much to be suspected. (14) Consider the light of the time (for God made two great lights, the Sun to rule the day, and the Moon to rule the Night) and see whether it be well or ill posited, and judge the same, as in any Aphorisme where you find the Moon mentioned. (15) The Hytech is to be taken after the accustomed manner, and according to his condition, judgment is to be given, as if he were the Lord of the Ascendant. (16) The Lord of the Ascendant, the Sun, Moon, and Hytech, happening to be in the sign of an Eclipse of that year, or of any notable or great Conjunction then in force hath great signification of death. (17) The sign wherein an Eclipse operating, or great Conjunction threatening evil, or the sign of the 8th House in the worlds revolution, I say if any of these shall be upon any of the 4 Angles, but especially the Ascendant, ‘tis thought to be very deadly. (18) When a Party falls sick, and at the time an infortune do posses the Ascendant or that Parties Nativity, he shall then be desperately sick, but yet may recover. (19) The Moon in the beginning of a sickness, being in the sign wherein an Infortune was at the time of Birth produceth a very dangerous sickness, but if a Fortune Judg the contrary. (20) The Conjunction of the Sun and Moon at the first falling sick, especially if the Moon be within 6 degrees of the Sun, and applying is very perillous, and if it shall happen in Aries or Leo, it is not so bad, and the Moon separating from the Sun, and elongated 12 deg. from his body, the danger is the less. (21) The Conjunction of the Moon and Saturn prolongs the Disease, especially when slow in motion, but when swift it is not of so long continuance; but if Saturn be Retrograde, and before he meets the opposition of the Sun the Party will relapse, and the disease return. (22) If the Moon be in Conjunction with a Retrograde Planet, the sick Party will be troubled much with vomiting. (23) The Moon joined to Mars without the beams of good Planets, and the disease be of a hot nature, it many times proves deadly, and more dangerous will the disease be, if the Moon increase in light and motion, then when she decreases. (24) The Moon joined to an Oriental Planet, direct and swift in motion, signifies the disease to be short; but if to a Planet that is Occidental, slow in motion, or Retrograde, the contrary. (25) The Moon or Lord of the Ascendant joyned to a fortune Retrograde, or Aspect, promiseth health; but the disease to be long. (26) An infortune in the Ascendant ofttimes changes the disease into another kind. But if a fortune, the disease is often cured without medicine. (27) An infortune in the Mid-heaven shews an unsuccessful or ignorant Physician, but a fortune there the contrary. (28) An infortune in the 7th House signifies the sick party shall cherrish, or augment his disease by intemperateness in his dyet and obstinateness of will, but if a Fortune be there, he will be ruled and will be very conformable. (29) An infortune in the fourth House shews that the Medicines given will increase the disease, but if a fortune be there, then they will profit. (30) The rising and setting of Stars of the first or second magnitude happening at the first decumbiture according to their natures operate very powerfully.

And thus from the experienced Rules of Ptolomy, Haly, Zarl, Arnoldus, Villanovus, and other learned men, is found that the Angles of Heaven have greatest signification in the State of sick persons, both in the beginning of diseases, and in Questions for the sick, for at the first falling sick, the Ascendant shall shew the disease, the seventh the sick party, the tenth House the Physician, and the fourth House the Medicines. But in questions give the Ascendant for the Physician, the tenth House to the sick Party, the seventh House to the Medicines, and the 4th House to the disease, ad thus these Aphorisms are changed.

And hence I may discover a secret and an excellent Rule if rightly understood; which is by the time of the Radical first Question (the day of the parties first falling sick being known) to find the hour of the patients falling sick. For look at the time of the first Radical question what sign is in the fourth, and make it the Ascendant, and that the tenth, which is here the first, and the true Horoscope shall shew it self when the Party fell sick; and this is a very truth if the day of the Parties first falling sick be really known, &c.

Signs of Health are, if the Lord of the Ascendant, the Moon and Hytech, shall be safe and not Infortunated. The hour of health or amendment is when the Lord of the Ascendant shall come to his own House, or exaltation, or shall become swifter in motion, or become Direct, and the Lord of the 8th. shall be cadent, or when the Hylech or Moon or Lord of the Ascendant shall be favour’d by the good Aspects of the Fortunes, but if the Fortunes be well dignified in the 8th. House, then they hurt, also when the Lord of the Hylech, or the place of the Moon, or the Ascendant, shall come to the degree of the Hylech. or the Moon or Ascendant, they shall signifie health, unless they shall be Infortunes, for the infortunes so coming, they hurt their proper places but do not destroy, the certain hour of Death is when the Lord of the Ascendant shall be joined to the Lord of the 8th. by body or evil aspect [?] like judge of the Moon and the Hylech, also when the Lord of the 8th. shall come to the degree of the Ascendant, or to the Hyrech. Those that desire to read more of this subject I referr them to my Astrological Judgment of diseases, wherein they will meet unto many rare and practical experiments. Sold by Thomas Sawbridge, at the three Flower deluces in little Britain.

after Unknown artist, line engraving, 1650s-1670s

after Unknown artist, line engraving, 1650s-1670s


Richard Saunders on the Artificial Memory of Raymond Lull

Richard Saunders was a well known and respected medical practitioner and astrologer who practiced in London in the second half of the 17th century. M. H. Porter writes about the connection with Lilly in his ODNB entry about Saunders:

Saunders was a member of William Lilly’s circle, and acted as physician to Lilly and Elias Ashmole. He was referred to explicitly in condemnations and praises of astrologers alongside the more familiar names of Wharton, Gadbury, Booker, and Culpeper. Lilly once referred to him as ‘Philotheoros’. However, he seems to have been closest to Ashmole who, apart from being godfather to Richard’s son Charles, also bought some of Saunders’s books after he died. He stands out from the rest of Lilly’s circle in that he seems to have been the only one to have published on physiognomy.

He was probably best known for his almanac Apollo Anglicanus, which was published from 1654 until his death in 1675. In 1653 he published a lavishly illustrated folio entitled Physiognomie and Chiromancie, Metoposcopie. Saunders dedicated this work to Elias Ashmole and it contains appraisals by well known practitioners of the time amongst them William Lilly, John Booker and George Wharton.

What is of particular interest here is the part of Saunders’ work, dealing with the art of memory. Dame Frances Yates has traced the origins of Saunders’ interpretation of Lull’s art of memory:

The extremely magical art of memory of which Fludd has heard at Toulouse sounds like the ars notoria. Fludd might possibly be referring to Jean Belot who had been publishing in France earlier in the century works on chiromancy, physiognomy, and the art of memory … Belot’s highly magical artificial memory, in which he mentions Lull, Agrippa, and Bruno, is reprinted in the edition of his Oeuvres, Lyons, 1654, pp.329ff. The art of memory by R. Saunders (Physiognomie and Chiromancie … whereunto is added the Art of Memory, London, 1653, 1671) is based on that of Belot and repeats his mention of Bruno… (Yates, Art of Memory, p316n)

The Ars notoria, a Grimoire of the so called Salomonic cycle, was well known to William Lilly and his friends. Lilly himself owned a copy and used it in magical operations until he encountered problems and distanced himself from it.

Frances Yates explains the connection of the Ars notoria with the art of memory:

… appeared in the Middle Ages as the Ars notoria, a magical art of memory attributed to Apollonius or sometimes to Solomon. The practitioner of the Ars notoria gazed at figures or diagrams curiously marked and called notae whilst reciting magical prayers. He hoped to gain in this way knowledge, or memory, of all the arts and sciences, a different nota provided for each discipline. The Ars notoria is perhaps a bastard descendant of the classical art of memory, or of that difficult branch of it which used the shorthand notae. It was regarded as a particularly black kind of magic and was severely condemned by Thomas Aquinas. (Yates, Art of Memory, p56f)

Now follows the transcript of Saunders’ chapter on the art of memory from Physiognomie and Chiromancie … whereunto is added the Art of Memory, London, 1653, part 3, p33ff.

What Artificiall MEMORY is,


Chap I.

Artificiall Memory is nothing but an Art to assist the Naturall: for without the one the other cannot subsist: If there were not a Naturall Memory the Artificial would not avail much; but the Naturall having some inclination to an Art or Science, doubtlesse the Artificial is very serviceable to it, and by Artificial that may be shortned, which otherwise would take up a long time; and this is it wherein Raymundus Lullius hath bestowed his endeavours, and by his exquisite learning found out the perfection of this short Art and Artificiall Memory; which although he found out, yet did he conceal it under Riddles and Amphibologies; that the learned might be at the expense of some leasure to know and attain it. But I seeing how necessary this Art was to Preachers, Oratours, Advocates, or any who deal in Merchandise, am willing to explain it, and by the hand or Chiromancy much facilitate; and that so as the simple person that hath an inclination to anything shall attain to some perfection therein, by an Alphabet that comprehends all that we can imagine in our hand, as may be seen in the figure put thereafter to the purpose.

It is first to be noted that the more curious Ancients before Raymundus Lullius divided it in two, or else endeavoured to acquire it two manners of ways; The first was very dangerous, being by Medicaments and Medicines, which they took to purge out the more grosse humours, and so cleanse their minde, and consequently make it more fit to conceive all things. The second method which they followed was more apparent, which say they, had been revealed to Solomon by the Great God; of which Solomon the Scripture testifies that he knew all things, from the Hysop to the Cedar, that is to say, had all knowledge: Of this Science did write one Apellonius, whereof there is a Treatise inserted amongst the Works of Agrippa, full of Prayers, which for the most part consist of unknown words; yet hee hath come somewhat neer the truth; for in the figure which he puts for the secrets instead of making use of [Michael in Hebrew] i. e. Michael, if hee had made use of the name of ten letters after this forme, hee had arrived at the perfection.

Yet I finde the invention much more easie by the way of Chiromancy, having read Raymundus Lullius over and over again, and all those that have endeavoured to facilitate him, as Cornelius Agrippa, Jordanus, Brunus, Alstedius, Leuinkerus, and divers others, seeing they place and found all this Art in those ten letters A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I.K.

Thus also for our way of instruction we place them in the hand.

Chap. II.

The Places where we are to imagine those letters thus posited.

You see in the foregoing figure, where we place for the foundation of this Art, A in the middle of the hand, which in Chiromancy call the Plain of Mars, how that that letter is the base and foundation of this Science whereto the other nine letters are referred: Which thing the Rabbins also had observed in the name of God consisting of ten letters, which begin with Aleph, as you may see in the foregoing figure. For if it be any matter whereof we would treat, we must place it upon the imaginary A. and the definition and distinction upon the other letters, as we shall hereafter clearly demonstrate. B. which is the first letter of the circle is placed under the thumb in the mount of Venus; C. under the Fore-finger or mount of Jupiter; D. under the middle-finger; E. under the fourth; F. under the little one; G. under that upon the beginning of the Table line, H. upon the mount of the Moon; I. at the root of the line of life near the wrist; K. at the beginning at the mount of Venus. Having thus imagined them, conceive in thy minde upon every letter that point which thou desirest to treat of or remember.

Chap. III.

Why this Art is called the Short Art.

Raymundus Lullius a man consummate in all Arts and Sciences for the assistance of the naturall Memory found out this Art, for to shorten the Sciences, and cause all men to conceive them more compendiously, and render them in one moment able to discourse of those Arts and Sciences, and penetrate into their most secret principles, which they could not attain unto by ordinary labour and study all their life; nay if it were 80. Years, yet all their study could not to the one half, and therein be perfect; whereas this Art doth easily teach and enable a child of seven yeares of age to make all sorts of arguments. Those that are acquainted with it and have attained it, have given wonderfull effects thereof. Agrippa hath made it appeare , thou hee hath been pleased to abuse it as he did the other Sciences. But the true reason why he cryed down those Arts and Sciences, was to make appeare how well he understood them; for before ever he dispraised them, he said wonders of each of them. This spirit that had pierced into all things, would by that Ironie wipe out the blame which some tender and vain persons would impute to him. I have a resentment for the honour of Monsieur Beaulieu, Bonju, who hath offended both him and Ramus, in the Introduction of his Philosophy, for this offence is ever retorted on him that will offend such men.

The reason why he cannot by his dispraises quench their renown; is because they are immortall in the memory of learned men; but the Philosophy of the said Beaulieu was dead as soon as born. Agrippa was not the first that tasted that Science; but Simonides of Miletum, and the great and wise Captain Themistocles were all acquainted with it: And in these later ages, one Peter of Kavana, Francis Petrarch, and Hermannes Buschius, and since them Jordanus Brunus, that have done miracles in it. Yet it will be asked why Raymundus Lullius gave this Science the name of Short Art; he answers himself in his Prologue to the Art, briefly in these words: Ut ars magna facilius seiatur; nam scita ista arte supradicta’, etiam aliae artes de facili possunt seiri & adisci: Which is easily understood, for there is not any Science which is not abbreviated by the Memory; provided, that he who would attain it be disposed thereto by these ten letters; For as to Rhetorick, the definition is placed on B. the parts upon C. the three figures of Syllogisms, whereof each figure hath four manners, two concluding Universally, and two particularly , which are comprised in these two verses.

Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferio,

Caesare, Camestres, Festino, Baroco,

Darapti Felapton, &c.

All that is place upon D. The Sophism, Equivocations, Amphibologies, ignorance of the sophism, caption of the Antecedent upon the other letters.

Arithmetick; the definition upon B. which is a Science invented to teach how to number many unites. The first rule of it which is Numeration is placed divers other histories; you may imagine them by conceiving this configure of Multiplication.

For observe that he who knows Arithmetick, conceives and comprehends the numbers retained by another; as easily as he that is a lover of the Art can conceive, retain and learn all that he please upon these ten letters; nay may number without Addition, unlesse it be of the cipher, and thus is placed.

Somebody conceives in his minde one of these numbers, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. For to demonstrate it; cause him to treble the number which he hath conceived; divide the trebled number into two; but if upon the first meditation the trebled number be odde (which you must ask him whether it be or no) bid him make it even by the addition of a Unite, and then that he divide into two halfs.

Of this addition you shall take one, and bid him doe the like; but you shall keep two; and then bid him substract 9. as many times as he can out of his last number, and do you number so many times four, then if you have kept any thing you must adde it. As if one had thought on seaven, that trebled is twenty one, one added makes twenty two, the one half is eleventh, which being trebled makes thirty three, and that cannot be divided into halves without the addition of an unite, which being thirty four, whereof the half is seventeen, here cast away two, bid him substract nine as often as he can, which because it can be done but once, you shall gather four, then need look after what remains, if you have kept three, which added to four make 7. So also manage these letters, multiply them according to the numbers of words that you would advance. Take the pleasure first to place such words as these upon every letter so to exercise your memory.

B. Beauty, C. Charity, D. Deity, E. Excellency, F. Fortune, G. Greatnesse, H. Honour, K. Katherine; doe it backward and forward, and multiply them to increase your memory, B. Blesse, C. Christopher, D. Delight, E. Edisie, F. Fort, G. Glory, H. Honour, J. Jesus, K. Kalender, and argue upon every one of the words.

The first figure for B.

All goodnesse is commendable; Charity is goodnesse; Therefore, &c.


All virtue is commendable; Charity is a virtue; Therefore Charity is commendable.


Every good thing is commendable; Some pleasure is not good; Therfore, Some pleasure is not commendable.

So of the rest; but all thy arguments ought always to refer to the subject, whereof thou discoursest, the which is placed upon A. Thou being a Preacher, if thou wouldst discourse of Principles, or a Principle; place it upon A. in the hand, and then upon B. make this argument, if there be any priority in the Divinity, upon C. this Syllogisme.

Every Agent is before the Patient, the Father is Agent, and therefore Patient, Therefore, &c.

By this proceeding, placing on the other letters histories upon this subject, and not leaving in the memory these principall letters, of our science, they may do all. Nay a child of 7. years of age may in ten dayes by this Art  be made capable and fit in all Sciences, if so be he is of himself enclined thereto; argue and form Syllogisms like an able Logitian, upon any point that shall be proposed to him; for this Art has wondrous effects I those that fervently embrace it. Let the Merchant also in the same manner make his advantage of it, whose memory should be preserved to Eternity. If thou art pleased with it, assure thy self that shortly I shall present therewith a large Treatise of all Divine Mathematicks; wherein thou shall be shewed the secrets of the Caball Ghematrie of the Jews, and besides that, what ever is curious in the works of all those who have anything of Occult Philosophy, take only these Notes for earnest, and esteem me thy friend.

The End of the Treatise of Artificiall Memory, or the Art of R. Lullius.